Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a developmental disorder that occurs in the incompletely vascularized retina of premature infants and is an important cause of blindness in children in both the developed and the developing countries. Incidence of this condition is rising rapidly in developing countries with improvements in neonatal care and increasing survival of very low birth infants. The most important aspect about ROP, is that it is preventable and treatable by adequate and early screening.
This issue talks about magnitude, risk factors of ROP and enables you in understanding its problems. It also discusses about various screening and awareness methods, management and treatment, clinical studies, protocols and linking to various guidelines and Government initiative.
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Survival rates of the premature babies (20% of all births) in India have increased because of improved neonatal care. As a result, Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is also on rise apart from other associated sequalae of prematurity. This often goes unnoticed in the early weeks of life, thus making interventions difficult and ineffective in most of the babies. A study in India quotes an incidence of ROP as38% amongst babies born with birth weight less than 1500 grams. With a birth rate of 23 per 1000 population and about 12% of infants being born prematurely in India, it is estimated that at least 20% of them being at risk of visual impairment due to ROP.
WHO has recognized that prematurity is one of the major causes of neonatal mortality (Report - WHO: Born Too Soon 2012) with India having largest number of premature babies (3, 59,100 premature babies annually) in the world. Unfortunately the incidence of ROP is also high in the country when compared to the developed world. Further, ROP in India is severe in its form and is seen in higher birth weight groups too. A study in India quotes incidence of ROP as 38% amongst babies born with birth weight less than 1500 grams. With a birth rate of 23 per 1000 population and about 12% of infants being born prematurely in India, it is estimated that at least 20% of them being at risk of visual impairment due to ROP. However, current reach is as low as 30%of this need. Thus there is an urgent need to address the growing ROP related blindness.
- GUIDELINE FOR THE PREVENTION, SCREENING AND TREATMENT OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (ROP)
This guideline provide information on premature infant’s healthcare needs, including screening for retinopathy of prematurity and treatments.
- NEWBORN SERVICES CLINICAL GUIDELINE - RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
New born Services Clinical Guideline provided the information about which babies are to be Screened? Classification System and Examination, Follow-up and Related Documents.
- GUIDELINE FOR THE SCREENING AND TREATMENT OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
This evidence-based guideline for the screening and treatment of ROP was developed by the RCPCH in collaboration with the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, British Association of Perinatal Medicine and the premature baby charity BLISS.
- NNF CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINES
NNF guidelines provided the information about ROP screening, examination, and treatment and follow up for neonates.
- CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE - RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY
This clinical practice guideline is based on the best available evidence at the time of development. these guidelines is to help the health care providers in clinical decision-making by providing evidence-based information on retinopathy of prematurity.
- RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY (ROP) GUIDE
This webpage covers all the information related to classification of ROP, zones Screening, treatment and ROP clinical Studies like Hope, STOP, ETROP, NEAT ROP
- JAMES D. REYNOLDS MD
Dr. Reynolds has various research interests in pediatric ophthalmology, but his main niche is retinopathy of prematurity. ROP is a disease of the developing immature retinal vasculature, modulated by hyperoxia/hypoxia micro environments in the retina, which can lead to neovascularization, scarring, and potential blindness. Dr. Reynolds is a recognized expert in the field and is the author of many peer reviewed articles and several invited review chapters. His NIH funding has been nearly continuous while at U.B. while participating in several multi-center clinical trials in ROP as center P.I. and project director.
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