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Dear Readers,
World Sight Day is being observed around the world on 12 October 2006 this year on the theme Low Vision and Refractive Error. By focusing the global attention on this problem we hope to escalate the notice it receives from various stakeholders and therefore bring more resources and attention to take care of it. This issue of Sitenews focuses on the same theme. There are numerous materials available related to the same.

Related to Low Vision it has compiled articles related to the magnitude of the problem, how to set up a low vision service, the kind of barriers that prevent people from accessing low vision services; low vision devices, the different types and what each is used for as well as from where they could be procured. Information related to their rehabilitation, where training on low vision is available

For refractive error it has compiled articles related to the magnitude of the problem, the different ways in which refractive services are provided, the various refractive error outreach camps, the barriers that prevent people from accessing these services.

Our partner this time is Sankara Nethralaya, India.

Happy Reading!

Regards,

Vision 2020 e-resource team
The Issue Features...
Low Vision & Refractive Error
Vol. 3 No. 10 October 2006
•   World Sight Day
Low Vision
•   Magnitude
•   Setting up Low Vision Services
•   Barriers
•   Low Vision Devices
•   Rehabilitation
•   Training Centers
•   Weblinks
Refractive Error
•   Magnitude
•   Refractice Camp
•   Barriers
•   Websites
•   Collaborating Partner

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It is well known that the problem of low vision is a major issue and it is increasing enormously. The true magnitude of the problem is not known exactly the reason being lack of agreed definition of what is Low Vision? And research needs to be done in this field. Here is the definition of Low Vision according to WHO.

A person with low vision is one who has impairment of visual functioning even after treatment and/or standard refractive correction, and has a visual acuity of less than 6/18 to light perception, or a visual field less than 10 degrees from the point of fixation, but who uses, or is potentially able to use, vision for the planning and/or execution of a task. Management of Low Vision in Children - Report of a WHO Consultation 1992.
  • WHAT IS THE GLOBAL BURDEN ON VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the current global burden of Visual impairment. It also describes in detail about the Estimation of blindness and Visual impairment including that caused by uncorrected refractive errors in different GBD- sub regions.

  • REVISION OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT DEFINITIONS IN THE INTERNATIONAL STATISTICAL CLASSIFICATION OF DISEASES

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the new revision of Visual impairment definitions in the International standard classification of diseases. It also describes in detail about the implication of diseases.

  • PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF BLINDNESS WORLD WIDE

  • Abstract:
    In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness in different parts of the world are reviewed and the socio-economic and psychological implications are briefly discussed.

  • LOW VISION MANAGEMENT

  • Abstract:
    This article provides an introduction to low vision management and rehabilitation. It details the ways in which low vision can be evaluated, describes the various ocular conditions that can benefit from low vision aids and provides information on how each should be treated.

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Setting up Low care to those in need will make vast difference in their quality of life. Eye care professionals must educate the patients about the benefits of low vision care and direct them there appropriately. Also strategies at national level should be adopted to make available these centers to all those who are in need of it. Here are few materials which helps you in setting up Low vision services.
  • SETTING UP OF LOW VISION SERVICES IN THE DEVELOPING WORLD

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about how to set up a Low Vision Eye Care unit. It also tells in detail about the plan, infrastructure, how to recruit the paramedical personnel, how to give orientation for the trainees. It also describes in detail about the causes and the temporal trends of visual impairment and blindness amongst the school children in India.

  • STANDARD LIST FOR LOW VISION SERVICES

  • Abstract:
    This article provides the standard lists of Low Vision devices needed to set up the low vision clinics at the secondary and the Tertiary levels and the cost analysis of the optical and the ophthalmic device setup needed for Secondary and the Tertiary Level clinics.

  • NEED FOR OPTICAL AND LOW VISION SERVICES SERVICES FOR CHILDREN IN SCHOOLS FOR THE BLIND NORTHERN INDIA

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the cross sectional study conducted in Delhi at the Blind schools to ascertain the need for spectacles and magnifiers as low vision assessment for improving functional vision. It also briefs about the requirement of Low vision services and lists out the causes of Visual impairment in children.

  • GUIDELINES FOR SETTING UP A LOW VISION PROGRAMME FOR CHILDREN

  • Abstract:
    This article provides as a guideline for setting up a low vision programme for children. It also describes in detail about how to analyze and plan for the resource infrastructure, human resource planning for setting up a Low vision programme.

  • ESTABLISHING LOW VISION SERVICES AT SECONDARY LEVEL

  • Abstract:
    This article focus on the factors to be noted and analyzed in detail for the establishment of Low Vision services in a particular service area with the Human Resource need for the same.

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There are various barriers to low vision services some of these are
  • Lack of awareness about Low Vision among patients.
  • Very few Low Vision centers in developing countries
  • Lack of adequate knowledge on Low Vision by Ophthalmologist
  • Limited guide lines to Patients
  • Cost of Low Vision Devices is quite high.
  • Less number of Low vision specialties.
  • PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO THE PROVISION OF LOW VISION SERVICES AMONG OPHTHALMOLOGISTS IN INDIA

  • Abstract:
    This article describes about the self-administered questionnaire structured by Seventy nine ophthalmologists to understand the level of awareness and barriers/ constraints to provision of low vision services. Significant factors associated with each barrier/ constraint and perceptions on providing low vision care were investigated. The main aim of the questionnaire survey is to identify and report the perceived barriers to the provision of low vision services among ophthalmologists in India.

  • BARRIERS TO ACCESSING LOW VISION SERVICES

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the study analysis conducted to investigate barriers to acces-sing low vision services in Australia. It also describes in detail about the methods and the result conducted as a result of the study.

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Low vision is defined as VA less than 6/18 but equal to or better than 3/60, with best possible correction in the better eye. When conventional spectacles can no longer help and surgery or medical treatment is not appropriate, or very prolonged, then it is time to consider low vision aids and devices. For these kinds of patient, Low vision specialist will do their best to give appropriate Low vision devices. We offer you various articles on Low vision devices.

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Vision rehabilitation is used to describe variety of service and specialized training that enable someone with a visual impairment to remain independent. This is accomplished by learning to do old tasks in a new ways. This enhances the life style of Low vision patients and also their dependency on others will be reduced to a great extent. For the benefit of Low vision patients much more Vision rehabilitation centers should be started.
  • VISION REHABILIATION AN EVIDENCE BASED REVIEW

  • Abstract:
    This article acts as a guide for Vision rehabilitation an evidence based review. It also describes in detail about the Low vision, how the literature study can be conducted, its types for analyzing the current strategy and the prevalence of Low vision. It also describes in detail the different source of databases that can be used while conducing the literature review, how to access and analyze the rate the prevalence statistics.

  • MEASURING LOW-VISION REHABILITATION OUTCOMES WITH THE NEI VFQ-25

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about case study conducted among . Seventy-seven legally blind veterans from the Blind Rehabilitation Center (BRC) at Hines VA Hospital and 51 partially sighted veterans from the Visual Impairment Center to Optimize Remaining Sight (VICTORS) program at the Chicago Health Care Network to evaluate the sensitivity of the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) to change in visual abilities after low-vision rehabilitation in two different Veterans Administration (VA) low-vision programs.

  • VISIUAL REHABLITATION SERVICES

  • Abstract:
    This booklet provides information on low vision aids, visual rehabilitation intervention, types of magnification, magnifying lenses used by low vision, rehabilitation services, vision rehabilitation centers etc.

  • COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION IN INDIA: WHO CONTRIBUTES TO CBR PROGRAMMES FOR THE VISUALLY IMPAIRED?

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the methods and the steps that have to be followed in rehabilitating the community for Visual impairment.

  • COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS IN SOUTH WEST UGANDA

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail the process, methods and the analysis of the Community Based Rehabilitation programme for the Prevention of Blindness in Uganda. It also describes in detail about the CBR statistics a result of the CBR Programme.

  • VISIUAL REHABLITATION SERVICES

  • Abstract:
    This booklet provides information on low vision aids, visual rehabilitation intervention, types of magnification, magnifying lenses used by low vision, rehabilitation services, vision rehabilitation centers etc.

  • EVIDENCE BASED EYE CARE FOR LOW VISION REHABILITATION

  • Abstract:
    This article focuses on the evidence based eye care for Low Vision Service Delivery and some of the interventions that have been done in low vision.

  • COMMUNITY BASED REHABILITATION: AN INTRODUCTION

  • Abstract:
    This article gives a brief about the community Rehabilitation programme. It also briefs about the community projects, organizations that help in the projects for rehabilitating the community from visual impairment.

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Recent data suggests that a large number of people are blind in different parts of the world due to high refractive error because they dont use appropriate refractive correction. Refractive error is easy to diagnose and treat with proper trained and adequately equipped personnel. Vision 2020 -The right to sight insist that Refractive error should be an integral part of eye care delivery and there strategies are
  1. Create awareness and demand for refractive services through community-based services/primary eye care and school screening.
  2. Develop accessible refractive services for individuals identified with significant refractive errors. This will require training in refraction and dispensing for paramedical eye workers if ophthalmologists and/or refractionists are not available in sufficient number.
  3. Ensure that optical services provide affordable spectacles for individuals with significant refractive errors.

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All Eye Care Organizations and eye hospitals need to join hands to work together to reach the un-reached patients population. One way to do it is through outreach, and refractive camps plays major role. We have provided you with resources which guides you to do effective refractive camps.
  • THE ROLE OF OPTOMETRY IN VISION 2020

  • Abstract:
    This article focuses on the role of optometry in vision 2020. The realisation of the impact of uncorrected refractive error has provided the opportunity for optometry to play a major part in alleviating vision loss for those most in need.

  • COST EFFECTIVE SCREENING OF SCHOOL CHILDREN FOR REFRACTIVE ERRORS

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about the methods of conducting the refractive error study amongst the school going children. It also describes the process of conducting a cost effective school screening.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR IN CHILDREN IN AN URBAN POPULATION IN NEW DELHI

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about the study conducted to assess the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school-aged children in an urban population in New Delhi, India. This article also tabulates the refractive error data among the school children with the distribution of the age and the prevalence of Asti magnetism among the children collected as a result of this study.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR STUDY IN CHILDREN RESULTS FROM LA FLORIDA, CHILE

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about the Refractive Error conducted amongst the school children, to access the prevalence of refractive errors and vision impairment in a shool-age children in the sub-urban area (La Florida) of Santigo, Chile. It also tells in detail about the Eye care statistics taken by Age and Sex of population, and also find the causes and the prevalence statistics of refractive errors.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR STUDY IN CHILDREN: RESULTS FROM MECHI ZONE, NEPAL

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the Refractive Error study in school children, to access the prevalence of refractive error and vision impairment in school age children in the terai region of Mechi zone in Eastern Nepal. This article also provides the Eye Care statistics and also the refraction measures analyzed using this study.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR STUDY IN CHILDREN: RESULTS FROM SHUNYI DISTRICT, CHINA

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about the Refractive error study conducted among the school children in Shunyi district china to assess the prevalence of refractive errors and vision impairment in school-age children in Shunyi District, northeast of Beijing, the Peoples Republic of China. It also provides the Eye Care Statistics collected from the data connected as a result of this study.

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Barriers to Eye care are obstacles within our health care system that prevent vulnerable patients from getting needed care, or that cause them to get inferior health care compared to advantaged patient populations. The barriers to refractive correction are affordability, distance to hospital, improperly trained opticians, lack of knowledge, Cultural and social barriers. We must commit ourselves to removing these barriers to achieve the goal of Vision 2020- the right to sight.
  • ELIMINATION OF AVOIDABLE VISUAL DISABILITY DUE TO REFRACTIVE ERRORS

  • Abstract:
    This article is provided as a guide for the Elimination of avoidable disability due to refractive errors. This article also provides about the statistical analysis of existing services for the provision of refractive errors of WHO report on the developing countries.

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Sankara Nethralaya, India
In 1976, His Holiness the Sankaracharya of Kanchi revealed a vision of an institution of excellence with a missionary spirit.

That vision was shared by Dr.S.S. Badrinath and his colleagues. It was named Sankara Nethralaya, which means "The Temple of the Eye". The long journey for vision with a mission began.

In 26 years, the hospital has gained international excellence and is acclaimed for its quality care and compassion. Sankara Nethralaya today has grown into a super specialty institution for ophthalmic care and receives patients from all over the country and from abroad. Sankara Nethralaya family today has over 1000 individuals with one vision to propagate the Nethralaya philosophy.
Visit Sankara nethralaya at www.sankaranethralaya.org