Aravind Eye Care
Library collections house a
wide variety of materials on many different topics and in many
different formats. The challenge in making these things available
for the use of library patrons is letting those patrons know what is
in the library collection. This is the reason for having a library
catalog and for taking the time to correctly catalog library
materials. A catalog record is the information on a particular book
or other form of media that the catalog has a listing for. It
includes a lot of information on the particular item. It tells you
about the item, such as who wrote it, what it's called, the physical
description, what it's about, and how to find it within the library.
The first modern cataloging
code was detailed in 1829 by Panzzi of the British Museum. He
detailed the important concept that each book should have one
principal entry. Later, at the Smithsonian Institute, Charles Jewett
had 33 rules. He hoped to develop a strict set of guidelines that
would cover every possible variation with these. In 1876 Charles
Ammi Cutter published the first edition of his book Rules for a
Printed Dictionary Catalogue which contains 369 rules for
descriptive cataloging, subject headings and filing.
Cataloging rules are needed for
- To provide consistency and uniformity within a single library
- To ensure that users are enabled to find what they need
efficiently and reliably.
- Time and therefore costs are reduced that are involved in
cataloging when there are steadfast rules to follow,
- Catalog records to be shared and thus reduces the costs in a
centralized or cooperative library system when libraries use an
agreed set of cataloging rules. With cataloging rules users can
even handle materials they cannot actually read, materials in
Charles Ammi Cutter made the first explicit
statement regarding the objectives of a bibliographic system in
1876. According to Cutter, those objectives were
- to enable a person to find a book of which either (Finding
- the author
- the title
- the subject is known.
- to show what the library has (Collocating objective)
- by a given author
- on a given subject
- in a given kind of literature
- to assist in the choice of a book (Choice objective)
- as to its edition (bibliographically)
rules have been defined to allow for consistent cataloging of
various library materials across several persons of a cataloging
team and across time. Users can use them to clarify how to find an
entry and how to interpret the data in an entry. Cataloging rules
larger a collection, the more elaborate cataloging rules are needed.
Users cannot and do not want to examine hundreds of catalog entries
or even dozens of library items to find the one item they need.
- which information from a bibliographic item is included in the
- how this information is presented on a catalog card or in a
- how the entries should be sorted in the catalog.
Types of Cataloging Rules
libraries mainly use two types of cataloging rules. One is
Cutter's Cataloging Rules. The other one is the
Anglo American Cataloging Rules
most commonly used set of cataloging rules in the English speaking
world are the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, 2nd Edition
The International Standard
Bibliographic Description or ISBD is a set of rules
produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and
Institutions (IFLA) to describe a wide range of library materials,
within the context of a catalog. These rules organize the
bibliographic description of an item in the following areas:
- Area 1: title and statement of responsibility (for example:
author, editor, artist).
- Area 2: edition statement
- Area 3: material (or type of resource) specific information
(for example, the scale of a map or the numbering of a
- Area 4: publication and distribution.
- Area 5: physical description (for example: number of pages in
a book or number of CDs in the same jewel case).
- Area 6: series.
- Area 7: notes.
- Area 8: standard number (ISBN, ISSN).
Transcribe the title proper exactly as to
wording order and spelling, but not necessarily as to punctuation
and capitalization. If the title proper is not taken from the chief
source of information, give the source of the title in a note.".
This usually lists the full title, including any subtitles, Parallel
title the work and sometimes includes the author's name as well.
Title: Subtitle./Author. Or
Simply Title: Subtitle
Parallel titles are
titles in other languages "Transcribe parallel titles in the order
indicated by their sequence on, or by the layout of, the chief
source of information. Other title
following example, "The man who made his name" is the other titles
Wallace : the man who made his name.
Statement of Responsibility
author is the person chiefly responsible for the creation of the
intellectual or artistic content of a work.Author
is often called a statement of responsibility. If there is no
specific author and in this field is an editor or
other type of contributor, such as a compiler. If
the work is the creation of corporate body, then it
is to be chosen Corporate body as author
- If it is just one author, which is the most common, it is
listed simply with Last name, First name.
- If there is more than one author they are usually listed with
a period between them. Last name, First name. Last name, First
- If More than three authors used et al following by first
- If instead of an author it is an editor listed they are
usually sited with Last name, First name, ed.
edition statement as found on the item use
Examples: 2nd ed.; 4. ed. 2nd ed., partly
The Imprint statement includes similar to
City of Publication: Publishing company, date of publication. Some
times copyright date is listed instead of publication date.
Examples: London : Unicorn Media, 2000.
Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, [1990?]. (Date supplied
by library so used square brackets)
description is usually there, which includes how many pages, if it
is illustrated, the height of the book, if any materials accompany
it such as a CD-ROM or other media. Other information is sometimes
listed but these are the most common.
3 v. (iv,
xi, 123 p.
(leaves were unnumbered but were counted)
500 p. in various pagings
251 leaves in various
221,  p.
50, 231,  p.
150 p., 30 p. of
1 v. unpaged (we have decided not to take time to estimate
the number of pages)
ill. (some col.)
2 microfiches: Ill. ; 8x13 cm.
If the book is part of a series the catalog mention a
series of books all featuring the same characters, or on the same
general subject by a particular publisher, etc.
Science 3 (Library Series: no. 3)
Subject is a common field in every catalog. Most
catalogs use the official Library of Congress subject headings in
information is often included in note fields such as other people
who deserve credit for the book, whether the book has an index, if
the pictures are in color, or anything that the cataloger decides
might be useful for the end users.
At head of title: American Society of Civil
Sponsored by the National Library
Thesis (MS) MGR Medical University, 2006
Includes bibliographical references and
Includes bibliographical references (p. 99-105).
of State Bank of India.[Gift2004]
The final field
It is usually the ISBN. ISBN stands for
International Standard Book Number. Serials have an ISSN, which
stands for International Standard Serial Number. These numbers are
unique to each book or serial.
Cataloguing Web links: