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Dear Readers,
Childhood blindness is the second largest cause of blind-person years, following cataract. Globally, approximately 70 million blind person years are caused by childhood blindness. There are about 1.4 million blind children worldwide. Approximately 500,000 children become blind evey year approximately one every minute and about half of them die within one or two years of becoming blind. Recent research on the economic cost of blindness indicates that blindness costs the community billions of dollards in lost productivity, caring for blind people, rehabilitation and special education. Approximately one-third of this cost is thought to be incurred by blindness in children.

Vision contributes a great deal to an infants perception of the world. Many parents naturally are concerned about their childs vision. Fortunately, serious eye conditions and blindness are rare in infants. Babies can, however have eye problems, so an eye checkup is still an important part of well-baby care. This issue of sitenews describes some eye problems that occur to babies.

This issue Introduces you to the babies eye care problems, importance of Prenatal care, Some tips for the routine eye-care of the Newborn child. It also discusses about Eye problems in infants like infections, blocked tear ducts, cataract, strabismus, amblyopia, ptosis, retinopathy of prematurity and refractive errors.

The organization we are featuring is Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus and the featured personality is Dr. Gunter K. von Noorden, M.D. You will know more about the history of Retinopathy of Prematurity. we wish you an experience of learning that is very practical. Your feedback will let us know how we can improve. We look forward to your feedback.

We wish you happy reading and do look forward to receiving your feedback.

Regards,

Vision 2020 e-resource team
The Issue Features...
EYE CARE FOR BABIES
Vol. 6 No.4 April 2010
•   Introduction
•   Pre Natal Care
•   New Borns
•   Eye Problems in Infants
•   History
•   Featured Personality
•   Featured Organisation
•   Talk to Us
•   Past Issues

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Over the last 20 years, much has been achieved in controlling blindness in children. Prior to the launch of VISION 2020, a number of international initiatives and programmes had raised the profile and increased interventions for child health and survival, which also had a positive impact on eye diseases and blindness in children. Since 2000, the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals have emphasised the need to promote child health and survival.

Since VISION 2020 was launched in 1999, controlling blindness in children has been a high priority. Child Eye Care Centres are being established with well-trained, well-equipped teams, particularly in Asia. Programmes for detecting babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) are expanding in Latin America, India, China, and other countries in Asia. Many school-going children are having their visual acuity measured and those with refractive error are being provided with spectacles. Finally, there is improved availability of affordable consumables and equipment, such as paediatric low vision devices, small diameter intraocular lenses, and spectacles for children.

  • NEW ISSUES IN CHILDHOOD BLINDNESS

  • In this article the most recent epidemiological data will be presented, the consequences for the Vision 2020 programme will be discussed, and research priorities considered.

  • TWENTY YEARS OF CHILDHOOD BLINDNESS: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNT?

  • This article presents an overview of what we have learnt over the past twenty years and outlines some of the challenges we still have to face in order to control avoidable blindness in children and adequately support those with incurable visual loss.

  • WHEN YOUR EYE PATIENT IS A CHILD

  • Here the author addresses the eye health needs of young children, focusing on those aged less than six years old.

  • MANAGING EYE HEALTH IN YOUNG CHILDREN

  • This article is divided into four sections, each of which is based on what the mother or parents will say when they bring their child to see you.

  • LOOKING AFTER YOUNG EYE PATIENTS IN HOSPITAL

  • This article helps you in making the hospital experience as positive as possible to reduce stress and anxiety for both child and parent.

  • HOW TO MAKE AN EYE UNIT CHILD FRIENDLY

  • In this article, the authors hope to share the key principles of making an eye unit child friendly. Even on a very small budget, there is much that can be done to improve the eye care experiences of children.



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The eyes begin developing two weeks after conception. Over the next four weeks all the major eye structures form. During this time the eye is particularly vulnerable to injury. During the last seven months of pregnancy the eyes continue to grow and mature, and the nerve that connects the eye to the brain (optic nerve) is formed.

At birth a babys eye is about 75 percent of the size of an adult eye. During the first two years of life, the optic nerve, visual function ant internal eye structures continue to develop.



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Newborns tend to keep their eyes shut, but most infants can see and react to lighting changes. Newborns can typically focus on things about 8 to 10 inches away, and they're often interested in faces. In fact, a mother's face is one of the earliest visual cues to which a newborn will respond. Your baby's eyes may cross occasionally during the first two months, and tears may not appear for one to three months, even with crying. Most newborns have vision in the 20/400 range, which improves rapidly over the next six months. By age 2 or 3, vision is often about 20/20.



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Vision is a dominant process in the growth, development and daily performance of children. Good vision includes healthy eyes, age appropriate visual acuity, visual integration and visual skills such as eye teaming, eye focusing and eye motility. Optometrists can evaluate these components and help ensure your child reaches his or her potential.

INFECTIONS BLOCKED TEAR DUCTS CATARACT STRABISMUS AMBLYOPIA PTOSIS
  • PTOSIS IN CHILDREN

  • This article consists of causes for Congenital Ptosis, important factors to consider while taking history and also the problems of Childhood Ptosis.

  • PTOSIS, CONGENITAL

  • This link gives a overview of congenital ptosis.

RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY REFRACTIVE ERRORS


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Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP), originally called retrolental fibroplasia, was the leading cause of blindness in children in the 1940s and 1950s. It was first described in the medical literature in 1942 by Terry. In 1952, Campbell theorized that the condition was caused by the use of oxygen therapy to treat the immature lungs in premature infants. Today, we realize that oxygen is not the only factor in developing ROP. High levels of oxygen have been associated with ROP, but lower levels of oxygen may lead to more respiratory complications and death in premature infants. Better oxygen level monitoring has led to better control of the oxygen given to premature infants. Today, however, there is an increase in ROP due to the fact that neonatal care advances mean more low weight premature infants are surviving.

Reference: http://www.visionww.org/drswindsor-rop.htm


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Gunter K. von Noorden, M.D

Gunter K. von Noorden, M.D., has been one of the pre-eminent leaders in ophthalmology and strabismus surgery for the past forty years. He completed a residency in ophthalmology at the University of Iowa in 1960 and fellowships at the Cleveland Clinic and the University of Tbingen Eye Clinic in Germany. Dr. von Noorden returned to Iowa City in 1961, first as Special Fellow, then as Assistant Professor in Ophthalmology. He was on faculty at the Wilmer Eye Institute from 1963 to 1972, where he achieved the rank of full professor. Dr. von Noorden was Professor and Director of the Ocular Motility Service at the Baylor College of Medicine from 1973 to 1995. He is currently Emeritus Professor at Baylor and Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, University of Southern Florida, Tampa.

Dr. von Noorden is charter member and former president of the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology (AAPOS), the International Strabismological Association (ISA), and the American Orthoptic Council, as well as a former president of the American Association of Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO). He has published 310 scientific papers and is the author of four books, including Ocular Motility and Binocular Vision. Theory and Management of Strabismus, the gold standard text for ocular motility disorders for the past 30 years.

Dr. von Noorden has presented 21 named lectures in the United States and abroad and is the recipient of numerous awards including the Franceschetti Prize, the Proctor Award, the Bowman Medal, and the Jackson Memorial Lecture Award from the AAO.

Reference: http://webeye.ophth.uiowa.edu/dept/LEGACY/awards/individuals/vonNoorden-2004.htm


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Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus

The Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus is a bimonthly peer-reviewed publication for the pediatric ophthalmologist that publishes original articles on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of eye disorders in the pediatric age group and the treatment of strabismus in all age groups. Each issue includes an "Eye-to-Eye" roundtable discussion on current topics, the popular "What's your Diagnosis?" column, and a quiz for CME credits. Subscribers can also benefit from our featured On Line Advanced Releaseread articles before they appear in the print issue!



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Vision 2020 e-resource team,
Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology,
1, Annanagar, Madurai - 625 020,
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Phone: 91-452-2537580