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Dear Readers,
Welcome to the July issue of SiteNews! We hope you have found the resources on the site to be helpful. For those of you who are first-timers this issue includes a quick overview of the new products uploaded and the feedback about the site.

This month we have decided to feature the Diabetic Retinopathy resources which would be of great significance and also useful to our readers.

As per Vision 2020 - The Right to Sight programme, the five major diseases for the South East Asian region is Cataract, Diabetic Retinopathy, Refractive Errors, Paediatric diseases, and Low Vision disorders. The magnitude section provides an overview of the global burden this is causing. Hence there is an urge to control this hike by initiating various awareness programmes within the community and also to the Ophthalmologists to know about the seriousness of the problem. We also provide resources to conducting a screening camp to identify diabetic retinopthay as well as how to set up and manage DR clinic.

This month we feature World Diabetes Foundation in the Organsiation Featured section. Hope this issue will impart the resources which are worth to be read. Looking forward to come up with more resources in future.

We wish you an experience of learning that is very practical. Your feedback will let us know how we can improve. Please write in your feedback at eyesite@aravind.org. We look forward to your feedback.

We wish our readers an informative reading!

Happy Reading!

Regards,

Vision 2020 e-resource team
The Issue Features...
Diabetic Retinopathy
Vol. 4 No. 7 July 2007
•   Magnitude
•   Awareness
•   Screening Camp
•   Technical Aspects
•   Setting up and Managing of DR Clinic
•   Featured Website
•   Talk To Us

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Today about 170 million people around the world have diabetes (WHO estimation). This will grow to more than 300 million by 2025 (The WHO predicts this number likely to be 370 million by 2030). While diabetes will continue to be a major problem for the developed world, it is estimated that approx. 70% of all new cases will appear in the developing nations.

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Awareness creation is a vitally important step in the creation of a successful program to battle against any disease in the community. This is especially true of the growing problem of Diabetic Retinopathy. Studies previously completed have revealed that Diabetic Retinopathy, despite its status as one of the greatest causes of blindness in both developed and developing countries, is virtually unknown to a large majority of the population. This lack of knowledge is not restricted to the general public, but pervades the medical and paramedical communities as well.
  Without awareness of the disease it is impossible for any individual to aid the cause of preventing blindness from Diabetic Retinopathy, either in him or herself or in the community as a whole. Awareness creation is therefore necessary as one of the first steps in any program aimed at reducing Diabetic Retinopathy. IEC
IEC is an essential input in community diabetic retinopathy care activities. The IEC process is concerned with providing information to people which enable them to analyse the pros and cons and be educated on the benefits of certain eye care practices. This ultimately would lead to a change in the beliefs, attitudes, misconceptions and practices of the population. The positive behaviors adopted would help in reducing the burden of diabetic retinopathy conditions in the community.
    1. People need to have correct information. Without correct information, the credibility of the eye care system suffers.
    2. Most eye diseases are preventable. Diseases like diabetic retinopathy need strong community action for prevention.
    3. Blindness is curable among large proportion of the cases especially in cataract cases. However, the community is not aware of the available diabetic retinopathy service facilities and lack confidence in the available services. IEC can help in surmounting these barriers.
    4. Eye health status can be promoted by adherence to healthy lifestyles. Dietary and metabolic control are extremely important in delaying blindness in diabetic retinopathy.
    5. Compliance with prescribed course of action is important in many eye diseases.
  • GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING A KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) STUDY

  • Abstract
    The main purpose of this KAP study is to explore changes in Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the community, paramedical personnel and medical practitioners on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy. This study will provide information for valuation of the diabetic retinopathy programme. It reveals increases in knowledge, changes in attitudes towards diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, as well as changes in the kinds of practices that are followed regarding management of diabetes and diabetic retinopathy.

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE STUDY PROTOCOL

  • Abstract
    KAP Study tells us what people know about certain things, how they feel and also how they behave. The three topics that a KAP study measures are Knowledge, Attitude and Practice. Understanding the levels of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice will allow for a more efficient process of awareness creation as it will allow the program to be tailored more appropriately to the needs of the community.

  • DIABETES AND THE EYE

  • Abstract
    This brochure on Diabetic Retinopathy deals about the causes and treatment for Diabetic Retinopathy, the diagnosing methods etc

  • ARE YOU DIABETIC

  • Abstract
    This poster giving details about how diabetic affects eye with the photographs and also the treatment required for the Diabetic Retinopathy diagnosis.

  • STAGES OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract
    This poster reveals the stages of Diabetic Retinopathy with all the pictures for more clarity.

  • DURATION OF DIABETES AND VISION LOSS

  • Abstract
    This poster explains how Diabetic Retinopathy develops in patients having Diabetes in the first 5, 10, 15, and 20 years. Hence, the importance of undergoing Diabetic Retinopathy diagnosis and constant treatment is enlightened clearly.

  • TREATMENT FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract
    This poster illustrates the treatment options for Diabetic Retinopathy with good pictures.

  • GUIDELINES FOR DEVELOPMENT OF MESSAGES FOR PREVENTION OF BLINDNESS

  • Abstract
    This article is a guidelines and the methods and the process that have to carried out while delivering healthcare messages to the community for the prevention of needless blindness. It also lists out the main strategies that have to be followed while developing the health education message to make the people aware about the diseases, the health care providers providing the treatment for the disease.

  • IEC STRATEGIES FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY PROGRAMME

  • Abstract
    This article details various information, education and communication strategies to bring about behaviour change for the emerging disease diabetic retinopathy.

  • CREATING AWARENESS OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AT TALUK HOSPITAL

  • Abstract
    This article describes in detail about the magnitude of the Diabetic Retinopathy and suggests the useful methods that could be followed for creating awareness among the rural community at Taluk and District government hospitals within their reach.

  • KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE STUDY ON DIABETES AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AMONG MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS IN SOUTHERN INDIA

  • Abstract
    This highlights the findings of KAP study which was conducted in the project districts of Madurai, Theni and Coimbatore, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice study on diabetes and diabetic retinopathy among medical practitioners in southern India.

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Screening for diabetes involves measuring the amount of the sugar in a drop of blood. Only a physician is qualified to diagnose diabetes. However, diabetes detection screenings are valuable in locating people whose blood sugar level is higher than normal. By organising many screening camps in the community, diabetic patients and diabetic retinopathy patients are identified through blood test and fundus examination. Thus diabetic patients who are at risk for diabetic retinopathy are identified and counselled regarding the diseases, eye care and laser treatment facilities. As per the saying, that education and service must go together.
  • SCREENING FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract
    This article highlights the Requirements of a Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme like Identification of the population at risk, efficient register and recall system, effective instrument for viewing the retina, experienced interpreter of the findings, screening protocol, system for managing the cases identified, Feedback to the screening personnel and Quality control.

  • TELEMEDICINE APPLICATION IN OPTHALMOLOGY

  • Abstract
    This article describes in detail about the TeleOphthalmic network. It also describes in detail about the application of Telemedicine in TeleOphthalmic. It also describes in detail the process and the execution of TeleOphthalmic. It also describes in detail about the advantages of TeleOphthalmic.

  • ARAVIND TELEOPHTHALMOLOGY NETWORK

  • Abstract
    This article describes in detail the evolution of Teleophthalmology. It also gives a detailed data about Teleophthalmology and also briefs how the Teleophthalmic network is serving the community needs at the primary, secondary and the Tertiary levels of ophthalmology. It tells in detail how the Teleophthalmic network is processed in Vision centers and Mobile vans to the community needs.

  • MOBILE TELEOPHTHALMOLOGY

  • Abstract
    This article briefs about the Mobile Teleophthalmic network for treating Community at the primary level. It also describes in detail about the process of how the Community is treated using the Teleophthalmic network. It also tells how the Eye Camps are planned in regular systematic basics with the help of the Mobile screening unit.

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SCREENING - CLINICAL STANDARDS

  • Abstract
    This document introduces the NHS Quality Improvement Scotland (NHS QIS) Clinical Standards for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening. The standards focus on specific elements of screening for diabetic retinopathy and are set in the context of the Clinical Standards for Diabetes.

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY SCREENING PROGRAMME


  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY WHAT SHOULD YOU KNOW

  • Abstract
    Source: Royal New Zealand Foundation of the Blind
    This booklet is for people with diabetic retinopathy and their families and friends. It provides information about diabetic retinopathy and answers questions about the cause and symptoms of this progressive eye disease. Diagnosis and types of treatment are described

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY THE FACTS

  • Abstract
    This leaflet sets out to answer some of your questions about the changes that may occur, or have occurred in eyes if you have diabetes. You might want to discuss this information with a relative or carer and with a health profession

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Countries requiring appropriate technology often do not have access to the information necessary to acquire such equipment and instruments. Because information on low cost technologies does not reach the decision-makers, inappropriate or extravagant purchases are often made, leaving the users with sophisticated equipment which is too expensive to operate, maintain and repair. Some of the strategies developed by WHO to over come these issues are:
  1. Encourage the development of a worldwide communication network for providing information on ophthalmic equipment and appropriate technology.
  2. Conduct feasibility studies on new technologies to ensure cost-effectiveness.
  3. Distribute information from international nongovernmental development organizations (INGDOs) of recommended equipment and instruments to practitioners and purchasing authorities.
  4. Establish a purchasing consortium to procure and distribute supplies and equipment to obtain best prices.
  5. Establish regional training centres with faculty and equipment capable of providing short courses for technicians and engineers (and practitioners, if appropriate).
  6. Encourage local entrepreneurs to produce basic supplies
  7. Facilitate technology transfer.

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Even as around 19 to 25 per cent of diabetics suffer from diabetic retinopathy, the speciality is marred by expensive treatment, dearth of specialists, lack of public awareness and training centres offering vitreoretinal fellowships.
  With Advanced laser treatment costing too high patients find treatment for diabetic retinopathy expensive. To improve the situation, experts suggest setting up of more diabetic clinics, which have a dedicated team of ophthalmologists, general physicians, endocrinologists and neurologists. The treatment for diabetic retinopathy would be cost effective, when offered through a diabetic clinic. Also Cases of diabetic retinopathy can be addressed if general physicians encourage diabetic patients to have annual eye check-up and regular check-up of blood sugar level.

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World Diabetes Foundation
The World Diabetes Foundation is dedicated to supporting prevention and treatment of diabetes in developing countries. They focus on the following areas:
  • Awareness of diabetes
  • Prevention of diabetes and its complications
  • Education and training of patients and health care professionals
  • Improvement of access to essential medicines in diabetes
  • Enhancement of detection, treatment and monitoring of diabetes
They act as a catalyst to build relations among different stakeholders such as governments, diabetes organisations, hospitals and authorities to ensure continued existence of our initiatives after the completion of the World Diabetes Foundation funded projects.

World Diabetes Foundation - Mission
  • We create partnerships to assist people with diabetes and those at risk, acting as a catalyst to help others do more
  • We link people and resources to educate and advocate globally and provide care locally
  • Our priority is to support the poorest of the poor
  • Our focus is on innovative strategies to prevent diabetes and its consequences
  • We aim to empower local communities to achieve sustainable solutions and yield replicable models
Visit our website : www.worlddiabetesfoundation.org

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You can also refer your friends to register with the innovative resources. Send in your friend's e-mail id to us at eyesite@aravind.org with the subject line Register my friend's id!

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Vision 2020 e-resource team,
Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology,
1, Annanagar, Madurai - 625 020,
Tamil Nadu, India,
E-mail:eyesite@aravind.org
Phone: 91-452-4356500