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Dear Readers,
This issue of Sitenews highlights an important aspect for the delivery of eye care that is demand generation. Unless people are demanding for the eye care services whatever resource building we do will be in vain. This issue focuses on the need out there in terms of magnitude of eye care. While the incidence and prevalence of eye care is there on the other hand is the fact that people requiring eye care are unable to reach the providers.

This is mainly due to a variety of reasons primarily being reasons in the community itself as well as due to reasons in the provider. Various articles highlighting various barriers in eye care bring this out more clearly. Unless we understand this we will not be able to reach the people who require eye care.

This is articulated in greater detail in e-resources related to understanding issues better for reaching out. These resource were made available via a conference sponsored by WHO and held at LAICO, Madurai with the support of Christoffel Blinden Mission, Fred Hollows Foundation, Operation Eyesight Universal, and Lions Club International Foundation.

Another key requirement for ensuring people access eye care service is health education. Resources providing different models of demand generation in eye care is also provided.

The featured organization is All India Ophthalmic Society which is doing extensive work in bringing this preventable disease under control.

Hope this issue will impart the resources which are worth to be read. Looking forward to come up with more resources in future.

We wish you an experience of learning that is very practical. Your feedback will let us know how we can improve. Please write in your feedback at eyesite@aravind.org. We look forward to your feedback.

We wish our readers an informative reading!

Happy Reading!

Regards,

Vision 2020 e-resource team
The Issue Features...
Demand Generation
Vol. 4 No. 10 October 2007
•   Magnitude of Eye Care
•   Barriers
•   Reaching out
•   Health Education
•   Demand Generation
•   Featured Website
•   Talk To Us
One of the major challenges facing health care providers in general and eye care providers in particular, is the inequity in the provision and utilization of care. This is often the result of mal-distribution of the infrastructure necessary for the provision of care. However, it is well recognized that universal coverage in itself will not guarantee access to and uptake of care. Even when eye care services are available and affordable, utilization and quality vary across population groups based on socioeconomic status, literacy, and other culturally based factors. The analysis of the reasons for poor uptake, and the enumeration of the measures necessary to be taken to enhance the utilization of services, are of critical importance if increased coverage is to be equated with enhanced utilization.

- Dr. Pararajasegaram, WHO consultant


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The first global estimate on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment was based on the 1990 world population data (38 million blind). This estimate was later extrapolated to the 1996 world population (45 million blind), and to the projected 2020 world population (76 million), indicating a twofold increase in the magnitude of visual impairment in the world by 2020.
    The extent of the global burden of visual impairment in 2002 is not strictly comparable to the previous estimates of 1990, which indicated there were 148 million visually impaired, of which 38 million were blind. While the 2002 world population has increased by 18.5% as compared to 1990, the population 50 years of age and older has increased by nearly 30%. The population increase is more prominent in developing countries. Taking into account the changes in world population over the past 12 years, the extent of blindness and visual impairment in 2002 appears to be lower than was projected 37 million instead of the projected 52 million.
    The global disparity and inequity in the availability of eye health care services still fails to prevent and control an overwhelmingly increasing magnitude of avoidable blindness in the highly populated poorest parts of the world.
  • WHAT IS THE GLOBAL BURDEN ON VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

  • Abstract:
    This article describes in detail about the current global burden of Visual impairment. It also describes in detail about the Estimation of blindness and Visual impairment including that caused by uncorrected refractive errors in different GBD- sub regions.

  • PREVALENCE AND CAUSES OF BLINDNESS WORLD WIDE

  • Abstract:
    In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness in different parts of the world are reviewed and the socio-economic and psychological implications are briefly discussed.

  • BLINDNESS PREVENTION PROGRAMMES - PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE

  • Abstract:
    This article tells in detail about various blindness prevention programme carried out , how it got into effect in the present by having the partnerships with international nongovernmental organizations. Moreover it describes the action of National programmes for the prevention of blindness. It also tell about the development of Global database on blindness and visual impairment, to study and step into VISION 2020 at national level. It also describes the Health Systems Research carried out to analyze and prevent the needful blindness.

  • PREVALENCE OF DIABETES AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract
    This poster reveals the fact of the prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy and also the incidence rate in the forthcoming years.

  • CHILDHOOD CATARACT: MAGNITUDE, MANAGEMENT, ECONOMICS AND IMPACT BR SHAMANNA AND R MURALIKRISHNAN

  • Abstract:
    This article focuses the magnitude of childhood cataract and the management of childhood cataract to reduce it.

  • CATARACT BLINDNESS CHALLENGES FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

  • Abstract:
    This article deals with the factors affecting the cataract population from reaching eye care, cataract challenges and the preventive measures taken to reduce the barriers.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR IN CHILDREN IN AN URBAN POPULATION IN NEW DELHI

  • Abstract:
    This article provides in detail about the study conducted to assess the prevalence of refractive error and related visual impairment in school-aged children in an urban population in New Delhi, India. This article also tabulates the refractive error statistics among the school children with the distribution of the age and the prevalence of Astigmatism among the children collected as a result of this study.

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Determining barriers to use of eye care services is critical for planning strategies to prevent blindness. Traditional practices, beliefs, fatalistic attitudes towards blindness, fear of treatment, lack of faith in the intervention, and fear about the surgical procedure influence the behavior of patients, leading to low acceptance levels. These are the principal barriers that would have to be addressed if uptake of services is to be improved. Health education, individual counseling, and using operated patients as motivators can help overcome this problem.

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In reaching out to the community each of the eye care disease requires a different service delivery model to be in place for ensuring all in the community have access and can afford the eye care provided. This necessitates a deeper introspection of the service delivery model in the community of each of the priority conditions amenable to reaching out. This PART provides you with resource covering the disease priorities. The disease priorities covered are cataract, refractive errors, childhood blindness and diabetic retinopathy.
  • GLOBAL CONSULTATION ON REACHING THE UNREACHED

  • Abstract
    This presentations main aim is to outline the magnitude and distribution of the worlds unreached population, To describe some common features of such populations, To discuss some of the implications of needless blindness in these communities, To outline some approaches that have helped to try reach these populations and the moral imperative for priority action in this regard.

  • SETTING THE CONTEXT - REACHING THE UNREACHED

  • Abstract
    This presentation focuses on need to reach out in eye care, market driving for reaching the community, characteristics of the community, framework for strategies for best practices and Principles.

  • CATARACT BEST PRACTICES

  • Abstract
    This presentation lists in some broad areas that could be followed in the community participation for eye care. It also tells how to build the community participation, make it sustainable and also its benefits.

  • CATARACTS MAGNITUDE, TREND AND ISSUES

  • Abstract
    This presentation briefs in detail about the major cause of the cataract blindness, magnitude of cataract blindness, barriers of cataract blindness amongst the eye care population in Ghana.

  • REFRACTIVE ERRORS BEST PRACTICES

  • Abstract
    This presentation briefs about the focus areas that have to be followed for the community to reach the refractive eye care services, ensuring the accessibility of the service, sustainability, creating the willingness amongst the customers to pay the service and continuous follow up by the community.

  • REFRACTIVE ERROR

  • Abstract
    This was presented by Mr. Keerti Bhusan Pradhan in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation deals with Magnitude, Challenges and Trends in Refractive error of various countries.

  • REFRACTIVE ERRORS - A SOLUTION IN SIGHT

  • Abstract
    This was presented by Dr. S.Aravind in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation focus on Refractive Errors Overview, lessons learnt, Service delivery models, Costs and Financing the services.

  • DIABETIC RETINOPATHY BEST PRACTICES

  • Abstract
    This presentation lists out the Domain areas and the main focus of the domain areas for the prevalence of Diabetic Retinopathy among the rural public.

  • STRATEGIES FOR ADDRESSING THE DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract:
    This presentation briefs about the project work done in Gujarat for treating the needless blindness .It also focus on the strategies like awareness creation, capacity building, treatment and the follow up activities that have been handled specifically with people affected with Diabetic Retinopathy.
    Source: Sight Savers International

  • ISSUES, MAGNITUDE & TRENDS IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

  • Abstract:
    This presentation gives an overview about the Global perspective of Diabetic Retinopathy and the raise of Diabetic Retinopathy prevalence in India. It also tells about the strategies, procedures that have to be followed for combating the challenge for the Diabetic Retinopathy prevalence. It also describes about the Screening procedures that have been followed for finding and treating the Diabetic Retinopathy.

  • MAGNITUDE, TRENDS AND NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR CHILDHOOD BLINDNESS IN PAKISTAN

  • Abstract:
    This presentation lists out the magnitude and the cause of blindness in Pakistan. It also tells about the current available ophthalmic services, strategies that have been provided and followed in at the primary, secondary and the Tertiary eye care providers for eradicating the needless blindness.
    Source: CHEF International,

  • CHILDHOOD BLINDNESS

  • Abstract:
    This presentation briefs about the global scenario of the prevention of blindness, and the blindness statistics in Nepal. It also tells about the pediatric eye care facility and the outreach activities provided by the Lumbini Eye Institute, Nepal.

  • GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS BEST PRACTICES

  • Abstract:
    This presentation tells in detail about the geographic factors for overcoming the challenges at the people and providers end for treating the eye care community in the prescribed service area.

  • GEOGRAPHIC BARRIER OF EYE CARE ACCESS IN ETHIOPIA

  • Abstract:
    This presentation lists out the Geographical barriers that cause needless blindness and the ways to overcome the barriers in Ethiopia.

  • DISTRICT EYE CARE SERVICE - LUMBINI MODEL

  • Abstract:
    This was presented by Mr. R.P.Kandel in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This is a presentation on District Eye Care Service Lumbini Model, Nepal.

  • OUTREACH OF ORBIS CHINA

  • Abstract:
    This was presented by Xue Yang in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation briefs about blindness situation in China and Outreach approaches & programs conducted by ORBIS China.

  • GUATEMALA OUT REACH ACTIVITIES

  • Abstract:
    This presentation lists in detail about the outreach activities handled by the Visualiza eye care facility in Guatemala. It also tells about the barriers that prevent the community from reaching the eye care facility and how the outreach activities are conducted in knocking out the barriers.

  • ORGANIZING THE OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

  • Abstract:
    This was presented by Huynh Tan Phuc in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation consists background of Blindness in Vietnam, Need to reduce avoidable blindness in Vietnam, solutions and lessons learned and applied.

  • ORGANIZING OUTREACH - CASE PRESENTATION ON ARAVIND MODEL

  • Abstract:
    This was presented by Mr. R. Meenakshi Sundaram in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This is a case presentation on Aravind Eye Care system Outreach Model.

  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

  • Abstract:
    This was presented by Raheem Rahmathullah in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation briefs about Information Technology and its trends over years. It also deals with issues and barriers to access the patients from the provider.

  • INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BEST PRACTICES

  • Abstract:
    This presentation tells in detail about the role of IT in eye care. It also lists about the role of IT in different focus areas in the eye care services.

  • VISION CENTER IN CHINA

  • Abstract:
    This was presented in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This is a case presentation on HE Eye Hospitals Vision center Model.

  • CONCEPT OF VISION CENTRE

  • Abstract:
    This was presented in Global Consultation on Reaching the Unreached which was held at Madurai from October 6th to 8th, 2007. This presentation explains details of Vision Centre Concept, Strategies for sustenance, Learning and its Future Direction.

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Low levels of literacy and education has led to a low level of awareness of eye Health issues, particularly in rural areas and urban slums. An effective awareness campaign making relevant information accessible to the right people hinges on a good understanding of the patient population in terms of health behaviors, literacy levels, economic status, barriers to access and logistics of information transmission. This understanding helps not only in the content, but also in the delivery of the message.

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People's use of health services is influenced by a range of psychological, social, cultural, economic and practical factors. Eye care services are no exception. Nevertheless, there has been a tendency to assume that if eye services are available then people in need will use them. But in areas with poor utilization of services there is need for demand generation. This section will provide you with resource related to demand generation. It will help you to develop various demand generation strategies which can be used to get more patients.

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All India Ophthalmic Society
The AIOS was established in the year 1930. It is a registered Society under the Society's Registration Act of 1860. They have at present about 10,000 Members. Many of them are life Members.

The objects of the society are cultivation and promotion of the study and practice of ophthalmic sciences, research and man-power development with a view to render service to the community and to promote social contacts among ophthalmologists of the country.

AIOS organise Annual Conferences in different parts of the country. In these conferences a number of scientific programmes, Symposia, Seminars, Workshops, Refresher courses, Live Survery etc. etc. are conducted for the promotion and mutual exchange of knowledge in the field of Ophthalmic secience. The society also gives incentives to the Members in the form of Awards, Orations, Prizes and fellowships in recognition of their services in the various specialities. The Chairman, Scientific Committee looks after the scientific programme of the society.

The Society has an Editor - Journal who functions under the aid and advice of the Editorial Board. Quarterly journals are issued to all the members of the society.

Visit our website : www.aios.org

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Vision 2020 e-resource team,
Lions Aravind Institute of Community Ophthalmology,
1, Annanagar, Madurai - 625 020,
Tamil Nadu, India,
E-mail:eyesite@aravind.org
Phone: 91-452-4356500

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