Retinoblastoma is an eye tumor primarily affecting children under 5 years of age. It affects either one eye or both regardless of sex or race. About 1 in 15000 live births has a chance to get retinoblastoma. The retinoblastoma may be caused by inheritance of defective gene or random change in a normal gene called Retinoblastoma1 (RB1 gene) named after the discovery. Children who inherit the defective RB1 gene have 90% chance of getting the disease. The risk factors suggested for retinoblastoma include HPV infections in mother during pregnancy or other occupational exposure to toxic compounds in parents.
White reflex or Leucocoria is the common symptom and squint, redness are other symptoms for retinoblastoma tumor. The tumor is clinically confirmed by looking the fundus of children under anaesthesia using a Retcam, along with the other imaging methods. The treatment will be based on the size and extent of tumor that varies from a local Transpupillary thermo therapy, systemic chemotherapy and/or enucleation. It is always better to detect and treat the retinoblastoma early in order to save life, globe and vision. Genetics has contributed largely to the management of retinoblastoma in the era of modern medicine.
This issue of Site-News focus on the multiple aspects of retinoblastoma.
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- OVERVIEW - RETINOBLASTOMA
Mayo Clinic website provides detailed information on Retinoblastoma Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors, Tests and Diagnosis, Treatment and Drugs, and Clinic Information.
- DEFINITION OF RETINOBLASTOMA
This website provides comprehensive information about retinoblastoma.
- WHAT IS RETINOBLASTOMA?
American Cancer Society website provides key statistics,risk factors,causes of retinoblastoma, how to prevent, diagnostic procedure and related information.
- OVERVIEW OF RETINOBLASTOMA
Up-to-date database provides overview about the retinoblastoma.
- HOW TO TEST FOR THE RED REFLEX IN A CHILD
The red reflex text, can reveal major eye conditions of retinoblastoma.
- RETINOBLASTOMA - BROCHURE
Aravind Eye Hospital brochure provides detailed information about Retinoblastoma.
- RETINOBLASTOMA: AN OVERVIEW
This page gives an excellent overview of retinoblastoma for recently diagnosed patients and their caregivers or anyone with questions.
- RETINOBLASTOMA RESEARCH
This information was developed by the National Eye Institute to help patients and their families search for general information about retinoblastoma.
- RETINOBLASTOMA GENETICS IN INDIA: FROM RESEARCH TO IMPLEMENTATION
This article reviews advances in retinoblastoma genetics, specifically focusing on information that is currently relevant and applicable to patient care. Second, it presents a scoping review aimed at determining the breadth and depth of retinoblastoma clinical genetic work in India. The review concludes with recommendations to help clinicians implement and translate retinoblastoma genetics to their practice.
- EYE CANCER (RETINOBLASTOMA) - CANCER RESEARCH UK
This page gives information about organisations and websites that help and support people with eye cancers. The websites listed on this page are valuable sources of detailed information on eye cancer.
- RETINOBLASTOMA - ST. JUDE CHILDRENS RESEARCH HOSPITAL
St. Jude is leading the way the world understands, treats and defeats childhood cancer and other life-threatening diseases. Its funded to Retinoblastoma Research. St. Jude has created more clinical trials for cancer than any other children’s hospital in the United States.
- RETINOBLASTOMA - TERRY FOX RESEARCH INSTITUTE FUNDED EXPERTS LEAD WORLD PRACTICE IN TREATING RARE CHILDHOOD EYE CANCER
This program provides research operating grant support to future leaders as they develop their independent careers in cancer research. Designed to provide a single research grant to scientific and clinical investigators within the first five years of a first faculty-level appointment in Canada, new investigators Brenda Gallie and Helen Chan, both based at Toronto’s Sick Kids Hospital have been investigating retinoblastoma for more than 40 years .
- LOUISE C. STRONG, MD - RETINA RESEARCH FOUNDATION
Dr. Strong proposes to update her registry of hereditary retinoblastoma patients at risk. Research Foundation is to reduce retinal blindness worldwide by funding programs in research and education.
- RETINOBLASTOMA RESEARCH - CHILDHOOD EYE CANCER TRUST
Childhood Eye Cancer Trust aim is to support world class research that will improve our understanding of Retinoblastoma as well as clinical research into effective treatments and reducing the negative impact on those affected.
- WHATS NEW IN RETINOBLASTOMA RESEARCH AND TREATMENT?
American cancer society website provided the detailed research into retinoblastoma has led to great advances and much higher cure rates for this type of cancer. Still, not all children are cured, and even those who are cured might still have long-term side effects from treatment, so more research is needed.
- RESOURCES FOR PARENTS AND PATIENTS: WORLDWIDE THE FOCUS IS ON SPREADING THE SIMPLE MESSAGE EARLY DETECTION MEANS SAVING LIFE AND SAVING VISION
The presentation focuses early detection of retinoblastoma Saving Life and Saving Vision of children. This presentation was presented in National RB Interest Group Meeting August 30, 2014.
- JAMES WARDROP IN 1809
James Wardrop (1782-1869), Scottish Surgeon, provided the first description of retinoblastoma as a clinical entity. Histologic studies including those of Flexner and Verhoeff and subsequent electron microscopy have given insights into its pathogenesis. The establishment of cell lines of retinoblastoma, the "nude" mouse model, and other animal models have contributed additional information. Classic genetic and epidemiologic studies have led to a broad and intense interest in the tumor despite its relative infrequency. Attempts now in progress to identify and characterize the oncogene for retinoblastoma may prove to be the most exciting part of the history of retinoblastoma. Futhermore, he was the first to suggest that enucleation should be the treatment of choice for retinoblastoma.
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