Dear Readers,
Today in eye care there is an abundance of information. With each advance in medicine there is an attempt to also reach it to the patients.
The theme for this issue is Information Education through Communication.
We thank you very much for your constant encouragement and support offered. Today this website is being accessed by 1440 users from 113 countries all over the world. We are working our best to make this website become the website for management resources in eye care.
As we are bringing out each issue of SiteNews featuring a specific topic, we take you to a detailed exploration on the various resources available on the topic featured from our website. All these resources make you clearer on the managing issues of the particular topic.
We look forward to your continuous support of our website as well as recommendation of materials that we can add to this storehouse of management resources in eye care. With your support this resource site will continue to grow and be of relevance!
Wish you a productive reading!

Happy reading!
Vision 2020 e-resource team
The Issue Features...
Information Education through Communication(IEC)
Vol. 2 No. 9 September 2005
•   Need for IEC
•   How to develop IEC materials
•   Communications Methods and Media
•   Educational Methods
•   Media
•   How to use IEC Effectively
•   Collaborating Partner

Communication is an integral and important component of the total health programmes. Communication has attained greater importance in health promotion and development. Communication is the back-bone of Modern Society. If community participation is the heart of Primary Health Care, Communication is the blood.

It is a link between the health providers and the community. Community participation is the corner-stone for communication. Communication is a means to mobilising the people and seeking their willing co-operation in political, social, health and economic developments. The main role of communication is providing information, persuasion, motivation, reminding and influencing the behaviour of the people.

In developing countries, Communication plays an important role in changing the knowledge, attitude and behaviour of the people. As stated by the WHO Expert Committee (TRS 690). "If people are to fulfil their role in Primary Health Care, they have to be well informed and this is an important function of health providers and the Mass Media". For changing the behaviour of the people, worker has to involve the people adequately and appropriately by providing scientific information. Then only, people will understand and realise the need and importance of Health and Eye Health Care.

Communication provides situation in which people educate themselves and to achieve health by their own actions and efforts. Knowledge alone is not enough to change behaviour. Beliefs and attitudes are also essential to change the behaviour. Basically, IEC is the selling of concepts and services through community involvement and participation.

IEC is a concentrated pre-planned educational endeavour with specific objectives, focussed towards specific programme goals in order to reach specific audience either in individual, or group settings through skillful use of proper methods and media.

The word 'Information' in Social Interaction, is used in different ways. We speak of useful, valuable, factual, reliable, precise true information and so on. Information is about something. It can be about an object, people, situation or events etc. The information involves informants, advisers, reference book compilers as well as those act on the information.

Clarity, usefulness and value of certain information depends upon the person, his needs and circumstances. The reliability depends upon the personal experience of that particular source of information. Factual or preciseness do not require a person or user. For example the following statements convey increasingly precise information to anybody. For creating potential action in the recipient, semantic precision is necessary.

  1. "A car will leave from somewhere, for elsewhere soon"
  2. "A car will leave from Madras for Madurai today".
  3. "A non-stop car will leave from Madras Central Bus stand for Madurai at 10.30 AM. Today".
Information adds to the store of knowledge of an individual Information in an organised way is concerned with transfer of facts. Information is mainly used to inform the people about Government policies, plans, programme achievements, etc.,

Function of Information:

  1. Reduces uncertainity or disorganisation
  2. Regulate the level of social tension .
  3. "Temperature controlling Agent" Raise social aspiration. 4. Fill the gap in knowledge and create awareness
  4. Inspire people to move.

Education is concerned with opening out the horizons to choose his interests and mode of living. It is a process of continuous interaction in which both teachers taught and get benefitted. It helps to mould the behaviour pattern of man and to adjust himself. Educational process is a planned effort to achieve pre-determined objectives related to thinking, feeling and practices.


Communication is a process of transmission of ideas, thoughts, feelings, behaviour from one person to another and thus to obtain desirable response to what is being transmitted.

The IEC strategies adopted in Govt./NGO's in promoting people's involvement for Health and eye health programme with special reference to group and intersonal approaches are as follows:

  1. Identifying the communication needs to plan IEC activities
  2. Training Health Functionaries
  3. Training of Community leaders/Volunteers
  4. Training of Mothers(M.S.S.)
  5. Training and working with TBA, Indigenous Medical Practitioners. Involvement of Health related sector personnel - A WW,CNW, Teachers Gramasevaks, Animators and postmasters.
  6. Use of Satisfied adopters
  7. Involvement of NGO's
  8. Adopting Social Marketing Technique
  9. Effective use of Mass Media for back-up (Cable TV, Folk Media) Strengthening inter personal communication and
  10. Follow-up of the programme.

IEC approaches:

People vary in their life-style and the level of knowledge. An uniform lEC approach may not be suitable. So, a mixture of different approaches may be used depending upon the local situation, audience, purpose, programme needs and felt needs of the community. These could be classified as

  1. Group Approach
  2. Individual Approach

Each approach has its own advantages and limitation depending upon the purpose and situation.

For interpersonal and group approaches, appropriate methods and media have to be selected depending upon the community and content of the messages. It is also better to find out already existing communication channels and level of information through KAP study. Based on the KAP findings, the worker has to select methods and media suitable on promoting people's involvement with special reference to interpersonal and group approaches. Common methods and media which are suitable for rural areas for interpersonal and group approaches are given below:

Methods and Media for Group and Interpersonal Approaches:

Communication :

Approaches Method Media
Group Approach
  1. Group Discussion
  2. Demonstration
  3. Role-play
  1. Film
  2. Tape-recorder
  3. T.V.
  4. Video
  5. Flashcard
  6. Flannel-graph
  7. Puppet-show
  8. Flipbook
  9. Booklets
  10. Leaflets
Inividual Approach
  1. Home visit
  2. Individual contact
  3. Counselling
  1. Photo-folder
  2. Booklets
  3. Leaflets
  4. Kits
  5. Flashcards
  6. Models

Both mass media, interpersonal communication have their individual and complementary roles. Information transmitted by media carries a certain amount of weightage. Interpersonal communication helps to reach deeper into the attitudinal and motivational core of the individual. It also helps to decision making process and to solve psychological problems. Feedback is possible in interpersonal communication when both are combined, the chances of influencing people to take appropriate actions are greatly increased. Mass communications cannot replace face to face approaches.

Each has its definite and well defined objectives. Mass Media programmes are best followed up with the effective system of interpersonal communications, so that awareness can be converted into actions without any lapse of time.

Strategies to improve both IEC activities and service deliver are to

  1. Increase the reach of services by making visits of workers and supervisors more predictable and regular;

  2. lmprove quality of services through knowledge and skill development of workers;

  3. Make supervision more oriented towards problem solving;

  4. Link supervision with training at various levels;

  5. Concentrate on local field problems, both for development training materials and their uses;

  6. Combine interpersonal communication strategy with mass media approach;

  7. Streamline supply systems to meet the local needs of health and family welfare units; 8. Establish relationship between various levels and elements of the system and 9. Improve performance levels through continuous interaction with village community volunteers.


Illiteracy and ignorance of diseases and its treatment contribute to increasing the number of people who do not access health care despite having a problem. Since most of the patients live in rural areas, it is necessary to train the primary care physicians to recognize patients and refer the the patients with high risk to the tertiary centres for management. IEC is essential for making people more aware so that utilisation of health care services increases.


The information gathered through the needs assessment provides the framework for the development of suitable IEC activities. Any activities and materials must always be culturally sensitive and appropriate. These are the msjor steps you should follow when designing an IEC activity:

  1. Decide the objectives:

    Decide what we want to accomplish. Is it to provide information or provide skill?
  2. Outline the subject matter according to audience:

    The subject matter should be as short as possible, so as to fix and hold the attention of the people. The letters and designs should be bold and big enough to be seen from a distance.

    The message consists of what we actually want to communicate including the actual appeals, words, picture and sounds. If the advice presented is simple, clear relevant appropriate, acceptable and put across is in an understandable way it will have a wider reach.

    Key message should have the following characteristics.

    1. Simple
    2. clear,
    3. need-based and relevant,
    4. objective and unbiased,
    5. provide options,
    6. consistent accurate,
    7. positive,
    8. linked to service delivery and lead to action
  3. Visualize the key points and Decide the aid For diabetic retinopathy if the key points are:

    1. Diabetic retinopathy is often symptomless until the last stage.
    2. If you have diabetes, get a dilated eye examination every year.
    3. Early detection and timely treatment may prevent vision loss.
    4. Duration of diabetes is more important than control of blood sugar
    5. Diabetes affects heart, eye, kidney, brain and limbs.
  4. Based on resources available, collect necessary materials including collect materials like master paper, ink, brush, pencil, transparency, card board etc.
  5. Plan the work
  6. Prepare the specific aid When you prepare the aids, provide reality of life situation.
  7. Pre test
    1. Assess the potential effectiveness of the aids.
    2. Study how far the material influence
    3. Identify characteristics and features of materials
      Promote effectiveness
  8. Make changes if necessary
  9. Based on the pre testing necessary changes may be made. Produce the original

    This article provides information on the guidelines to be followed in generating a messgaes and the approach to the community required to make it successful.
    Mr. K. Kaliaperumal, IEC Expert - Aravind Eye Care System.


    KAP Study tells us what people know about certain things, how they feel and also how they behave. The three topics that a KAP study measures are Knowledge, Attitude and Practice. Understanding the levels of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice will allow for a more efficient process of awareness creation as it will allow the program to be tailored more appropriately to the needs of the community.
    Mr. K. Kaliaperumal, IEC Expert - Aravind Eye Care System.


    This article provides information on the guidelines to be followed in conducting KAP study with details on the method and steps of preparing KAP questionnaires.
    Mr. K. Kaliaperumal, IEC Expert - Aravind Eye care System.


    This article focuses on various issues of pre testing like what, why, how, where and with whom to pre test the Health education materials.


Approaches Methods Media
Mass Press meeting Seminar
Public meeting
Exhibition chart
Newspaper and Journals
Group Seminar
Group discussion
Flip chart
Individual Patient education/ Interaction
Individual contact
This could other wise be called personal contact or face to face discussion and is flexible enough to be adapted to the individual needs, individual contacts help the education to understand and correct where necessary, the attitudes and beliefs that an individual holds against a proposed practice to relate the practice to the personal needs of the individuals and to identify the barriers seen by the individual in adoption and remove them. It thus helps to reach deeper into the attitudinal and motivational look of the individual. Its role extends through the entire phase of the Programme, from the early phase of the education introduction to the community to the operational and follows up activities. The success of the individual approach depends to a large extend on the skill of the education in interview technique.

The Group approach is designed to help change the opinions and attitudes of the targeted people. It is characterized by efforts to reach a smaller target audience for a more sustained period of time. This approach is more effective in educating its audience than methods conducted under the Mass approach. Activities characterized under the Group approach should occur after those under the Mass approach. This is because the activities that this approach includes assume that the audience already possesses some level of awareness and some form of basic knowledge of the problem. The need for sustained efforts using the Group approach is demonstrated by poor results in any section of the KAP study, as Group awareness creation activities can effectively increase knowledge, change attitudes and correct wrong practices. The following activities are included in the Group approach.

The Mass approach is intended to reach a large number of people. Its primary goal is to create awareness of the problem in those whom it reaches and to begin to increase their level of knowledge. Activities that fall under this category are not intended to result in great understanding in those they reach, but an increased awareness of the problem and basic knowledge about its specifics. A poor result in the knowledge section of the KAP survey amongst the population studied is a good indication that a high level of effort should be focused on the Mass approach to awareness creation. The mediums that are most appropriate for this type of awareness creation vary largely.


Teaching methods are devices used to create learning situation in which communication can take place between the actual teacher and learner, effective learning situation are created through the skill full use of appropriate teaching methods and techniques some of the teaching methods are discussed below.

    This article teaches you in greater detail about certain commonly used and versatile communication aids like posters, charts, pull chart, flip chart etc.
    P. Krishnamurthy, C. Premanandh - Dhan Foundation.

    It is a careful presentation of facts with organized thoughts and ideas by a qualified person. In it, the lecturer tries to highlight some points for want of time.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning


    It is a very old method and was prevalent in all societies. This technique may be defined as face-to-face mutual interchange of ideas and opinions between members of a relatively small group (usually five to twenty). It is more than the random, unstructured conversation which occurs whenever small groups congregate. It has method and structure, but it can still be informal and democratic in every sense. The occurrence of a small group discussion implies a common concern regarding a desire for information, a problem to be solved, or a decision to be made.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A group of four or more persons who have special knowledge of the topic sit at a table in front of the audience and hold an orderly and logical conversation on the assigned topic.
    1. The panel sets up an audience (the panel) within an audience (the listening members) and fuses the two groups into a single reflective unit.
    2. The panel members discuss the problem.
    3. After thirty or forty minutes, the chairman restates the ideas of the panel and opens discussion to all for spontaneous questioning and brief comment for twenty to thirty minutes.
    4. The Chairman interprets the collective sense of the panel and audience and adjourns the conference.

    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning


    A group of persons gathered for the purpose of studying a subject under the leadership of an expert or learned person. They are normally identified with learning institutions. The participants bring with them a background of training and experience in the area.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A workshop means work. It is a meeting of people who work together in small groups, usually upon problems which they derive themselves. Usually it is a group of twelve or more persons with a common interest or problem, usually professional or vocational who meet together for an extended period of time to improve their individual proficiency, ability, or understanding, by study, research, discussion and securing information from specialists.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    The role playing technique is the spontaneous unrehearsed acting out of a situation by a group by selected members of a group.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    It is broadly a meeting of heterogeneous participants where in certain information is passed on for consideration and future action.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A symposium is a series of speeches with usually two to five experts, under the direction of a chairman given on as many aspects of a problem is there are speakers present.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    Brain storming is a type of small group interaction designed to encourage the free introduction of ideas on a restricted basis and without any limitations as to feasibility. Participants are encouraged to list for a period of time all the ideas that come to their minds regarding some problem and are asked not to judge these ideas during the session. Judgment of the ideas will come at a later period in which all contributions will be sorted, evaluated and perhaps later adopted.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A group usually composed of two to fifty persons representing several organizations, departments, or points of view within an organization, meet together exhibit a common interest and present two or more sides of their problems. They gather information and discuss mutual problems with a reasonable solution as the desirable end. The various phases of the problem may be presented by co-operative or hostile groups.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    It is a method whereby a large group is divided into small groups of five to ten to discuss a specific problem for a limited time.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    In popular usage, simulation connotes an assumption of something without having its reality. A dictionary of scientific terms defines simulation as the assumption of features or structures intended to deceive enemies, as forms of leaf and stick insects, and all varieties of protective colour action. in social sciences however, simulation is used as a method to study social or psychological phenomena and is devoid of the connotation of deception.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    Case study is a method where the investigator undertakes through study of all the interrelations and interactions of several variables and finally comes to an understanding of the situation. The unit for investigation and analysis could be individuals, families, culture, groups, communitys decision and situations. The objectives of the study are

    1. To gather detailed information about the unit under study and
    2. To determine factors accounting for complete behavior pattern of the unit to its surrounding milieu.

    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A campaign is an intensive teaching activity undertaken at an opportune moment for a brief period, focussing attention in a concerted manner towards a particular problem so as to stimulate the widest possible interest in the community. Campaign methods can be used only after an advocated practice is found acceptable to the local people through method or result demonstrations or other extension methods.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A Colloquy is an informal method of discourse which is a modified form of the panel, using one group of three to four Persons from the audience and another group of three to four resources persons or experts on the subject to be considered. The panel members elected from the audience present the problem and the experts comment on various aspects of it. The general audience and panel members participate whenever they so desire under the guidance of a moderator.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A discussion carried on in front of a group by two knowledgeable people capable of thoughtful communicative discourse on a specific subject is called a dialogue. It is less formal than a lecture or a panel discussion and has many unique dynamics of its own.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    The term forum applies either to the technique used in a single meeting or to the institution as it operates in a community through a season. Its essence is social exchange or sharing of ideas.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    1. The committee is a body of men and /or women, charged with specific duties to be carried out in accordance with a common plan.
    2. It is a working organization, not a debating body.
    3. It is a working organization, not a debating body.
    4. It is composed of a group of persons who have specialized capabilities equal to the responsibilities given to them, and meeting from time to time to exercise their abilities and functions in co-operative action.

    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    It is a method by which a group gets together for the purpose of seeing an improved performance or result of a practice in actual situations. This requires the group move out of the area for a considerable period with a definite Programme.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

    A very effective modification of the interview is the round table. It consists of an interview with three or four speakers who present a more or less informed debate. No formal script is used, but the participants speak from notes which have been previously discussed. Since there is no audience participation, the round table is admirably adopted to radio. It is not strictly a discussion method but more of a debate.
    M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning


Media education helps us to provide current information and messages about health education. Through media we can

  1. Create awareness about a program and its goal
  2. Build public opinion and enhance peoples participation
  3. Help in legitimization of a Programme of social change
  4. Provide support to a cause.

      One picture is equal to thousand words. Media can be divided in to many types.

      1. Modern media: Modern media is new approach, with the advancement of science and technology the media too is changing. This modern media mainly targets urban and literate persons.


      • NEWS PAPER
        Newspaper is a periodical with the service type or news-type of information. To use this valuable medium of communication effectively, one must consider the kinds of newspapers, the nature and sources of news, and the maintenance of good press re lat ions, as well as the kinds of newspaper copy and how to prepare them.

        Television is an electronic system of transmitting still and moving images with accompanying sound over a wire or through space. The system employees equipment that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts then into visible

        A motion picture (also called a movie or film) is a series of still pictures taken in rapid succession usually on 8mm or 16mm film stock, which, when projected through a motion picture projector, give the viewers an illusion of motion.

      • COMPUTER

        Flash cards are a set of pictured compact paper cards of varying sizes that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence before an audience to bring home an idea. The message on each card is brief and up to the point.

        Magnetic tape is acetate or plastic ribbon coated on one surface with a layer of magnetizable iron oxide particles (see illustration). The width tape is usually employed to record audio messages magnetically for subsequent reproduction. The tape recorder, with which the magnetic tape is used, can record a message and play it back or play back of pre-recorded tape. The unit contains recording and playback amplifiers and heads (see illustrations). The heads may be full track, half track, dual track, or quarter track (see illustration).

        Filmstrip is a length of 35 mm film containing a series of still pictures intended fro projection in sequence one at a time. Some filmstrips come with a tape or disc recording that contains the narration. When the proper equipment is used, a low frequency signal activates a mechanism to advance the filmstrip one frame. (The filmstrip is sometimes called a strip film and a slide film).

        An overhead transparency is an image usually 8 * 11 on clear acetate or plastic which has been prepared For use on an overhead projector. An overhead projector is a device which throws an image on a screen. It is placed In front of an audience and may be used in a completely lighted on semi-darkened room: it utilized 3 x 4, 7 x 7, 10 * x 10, or most commonly, 8 x 11 transparencies.

        A phonograph record (or phonodisc or disc) is a round and flat acetate object which has been moulded from a master disc containing an irregular surface which causes sound vibrations that are transferred to the acetate for purpose of reproduction by a needle. The photograph (or record player) is an electronic device that reproduces sound from records.

      • POSTER

        Poster is a visual combination of bold design, colour and message which is intended to catch and hold the attention of the passer by just long enough to implant a significant idea in his mind. Good posters must have a dynamic, impelling quality. They must be essentially simple for there is not time to involve the viewer in detailed study. They must be striking enough to attract attention. Dramatic simplicity, appropriateness, limited test, attractiveness, design and colour are the good characteristics of the posters.

      • PICTURE
        A picture is a two-dimensional visual representation of persons, places, or things. Most commonly it is a photograph, but it also may be a sketch, a cartoon, a mural, or even a chart, graph or map, Pictures may be used for individual study, for display on bulletin boards and in exhibits, and for projection when groups of students need to look at one picture at the same time.

      • PAMPHLET
        A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). It may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on both sides and folded in half, in thirds, or in fourths (called a leaflet), or it may consist of a few pages that are folded in half and stapled at the crease to make a simple book. Librarians consider a pamphlet to be any paperback book with 49 pages or less, that is not aimed at children.

        The Flannel board consists of only two Parts - a board covered with flannel and objects having fluzzy and napped backing.

        The principle involved is the inter1ooking of fibres of two rough or bairy surfaces, so that the pieces pressed on to a background which is hard and vertical will stay. It can be illustrated on a larger scale by pressing two tooth brushes or hair brushes together, so the bristle inter-1ook. In case of flannel graph similar principle of friction helps an object to cling to the surface of the board.

      • RADIO

        Almost every health educator uses the exhibit to some extent. If you are not using exhibits, perhaps you should ask yourself whether you have opportunities to do so to advantage in libraries, in the department lobby, foyer, or window, at fairs, health meetings, or schools, in store windows, public clinics, and in many other places.
        M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

        Of all the av materials, three dimensional aids are nearest to living experiences. These side, such as models and mook-ups are replies or reconstructions of the real thing. They are contrived experiences where reality is altered or simplified for teaching purposes.
        M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning


        1. To show relationships by means of facts, figures or statistics.
        2. To present materials symbolically.
        3. To summarize information.
        4. To show continuity in process.
        5. To present abstract ideas in visual form.
        6. To show the development of structures.
        7. To create problems and to stimulate thinking.
        8. To encourage utilization of other media of communication.
        9. To motivate a students desire to continue related research.

        M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

      • KITS
        The kit programme is an outgrowth of school science study projects developed by scientists and classroom teachers as a confidence building point for the teachers. Before the final kit is made available much field testing and revision of the contents is undertaken to ensure a valid programme. Now the kit programme has successfully been developed for various other programmes aimed at imparting knowledge, creating awareness, developing certain interests and skills, and seeking a charge in attitude, etc.

      • Printed and duplicated material as tools for learning and information

      2. Traditional/Folk media: This media is used through ages this method is suitable for rural and illiterate masses.

      • FOLK MEDIA
        Traditional forms of expression were identified. The classification covering the performing arts and the visual arts included music, song, drama, skits, puppet shows , poetry, speech, sounds, gesture, gossip, jokes, proverbs, painting, certain printed literature, sculpture, handicrafts, costuming, patterning and colouring of material and use of head-gear. Symbolic meanings may often be an important consideration in use of any one or combination of these forms of expression and therefore the thought-processes behind selection of forms assumed significance.
        M. Thangadorai, Technical Officer - Gandhigram Institue of Rural Health and Family Planning

      • PUPPETRY
        This article focuses on puppetry like its advantages, disadvantages, type of puppetry, making arrangements, writing for a puppetry play,conversation and how to use puppets etc.
        P. Krishnamurthy, C. Premanandh - Dhan Foundation.


        Long years ages perhaps in our very village, men and women must have gathered time after time to watch puppet-shows. The puppets may have been different from those of today. Their costumes may have been more elegant, too, but the fun and the laughter must have been the same. There are many echoes from the past that make us sure that puppetry in India is one of the most ancient arts.

        The persons who make the puppets and act out the plays are called puppeteers. They become more expert in acting writing the plays, the more plays they produce.

        By various means they get a keen insight into human nature and a deeper understanding of human emotions, Not only the puppeteer is being educated but the listeners are being educated as well and that quite painlessly.


For IEC of any kind to be effective it must be linked with the availability of support and resources so target audiences can act in the manner which is being recommended. It is therefore essential that the content of any IEC programme accurately reflect the nature and quality of the services provided. Logistical support must be adequate to ensure the necessary supplies (material and human) are consistently available and adequate training should be provided to health workers to support inter-personal communication and community follow-up. People must be able to act on the advice contained in the IEC messages and materials.

Success stories of IEC:

Impact of Health Education in Diabetic Retinopathy:

Health education was conducted for the public, Diabetes patient and the partners about diabetes and DR in the Pilot Project district of Tamil nadu. Because of proper health Education strategy, there was an increase in knowledge, attitude and practice in Diabetes and DR.

KAP study findings:

Indicators Base Line Mid Term Final
Diabetes affects eyes 53% 74% 86
Risk factor in DR 2% 45% 64%
Laser 2% 29% 65%

Base Hospital workload in Madurai has increased.

Year Diabetes DR Laser
2000 3097 704 287
2004 7068 1830 637
    This is a case study which describes about the information which was passed to lay man and its stresses that "Diabetes can not be cured, it can be controlled and there is no medicine for Diabetic retinopathy.
    K. Kaliaperumal, I.E.C. Expert - Aravind Eye Care System

    This case study describes about how a health education session helps to stabilize the vision of a person.
    K. Kaliaperumal, I.E.C. Expert - Aravind Eye Care System.


We are very much charmed to team up with other Resource Centres to reach out more people and develop useful resources. This month we are featuring Gandhigram Institute of Rural Health and Family Welfare Trust as our collaborating partner.

Dr. (Mrs.) T.S. Soundaram established the Gandhigram Institute of Rural Health and Family Welfare Trust in 1964 as an outcome of here successful experiences in the Pilot Health Project in Athoor block during 1959-64. Adopting the concept of Gandhian constructive programs in its delineation of its activities, the project pioneered Community Health Education as the promising concept to stabilize the Health and Family Welfare conditions of the Nation. These pioneering initiatives prompted the Government of Tamil Nadu, Government of India and Ford Foundation to recognize the project as an Institution in the year 1964.

The broad objective of Gandhigram Institute of Rural Health and Family Welfare Trust are

  1. Conducting research studies in the field of Reproductive and Child health, Rural Health, and Family Health Activities.
  2. Organizing training programs in Reproductive and Child Health, Health and Family Welfare Programs for Personnel from the state and those from other states
  3. Developing newer methodologies for implementing Reproductive and Child Health, and other Health programs